The ISO 14000 environmental management standards exist to help organizations minimize how their operations negatively affect the environment (cause adverse changes to air, water, or land) and comply with applicable laws and regulations.
ISO 14001 is the international specification for an environmental management system (EMS). It specifies requirements for establishing an environmental policy, determining environmental aspects and impacts of products/activities/services, planning environmental objectives and measurable targets, implementation and operation of programs to meet objectives and targets, checking and corrective action, and management review. ISO 14000 is similar to ISO 9000 quality management in that both pertain to the process (the comprehensive outcome of how a product is produced) rather than to the product itself. The overall idea is to establish an organized approach to systematically reduce the impact of the environmental aspects which an organization can control. Effective tools for the analysis of environmental aspects of an organization and for the generation of options for improvement are provided by the concept of Cleaner Production.
As with ISO 9000, certification is performed by third-party organizations rather than being awarded by ISO directly. The ISO 19011 audit standard applies when auditing for both 9000 and 14000 compliance at once.
The material included in this family of specifications is very broad. The major parts of ISO 14000 are :
- ISO 14001 is the standard against which organizations are assessed. ISO 14001 is generic and flexible enough to apply to any organization producing and/or manufacturing any product, or even providing a service anywhere in the world.
- ISO 14004 is a guidance document that explains the 14001 requirements in more detail. These present a structured approach to setting environmental objectives and targets and to establishing and monitoring operational controls.
These are further expanded upon by the following :
- ISO 14020 series (14020 to 14025), Environmental Labeling, covers labels and declarations.
- ISO 14030 discusses post-production environmental assessment.
- ISO 14031 Evaluation of Environmental Performance.
- ISO 14040 series (14040 to 14044), Life Cycle Assessment, LCA, discusses pre-production planning and environment goal setting.
- ISO 14050 terms and definitions.
- ISO 14062 discusses making improvements to environmental impact goals.
- ISO 14063 is an addendum to 14020, discussing further communications on environmental impact.
- ISO 14064-1:2006 is Greenhouse gases – Part 1: Specification with guidance at the organization level for the description, quantification and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and removals.
- ISO 14064-2:2006 is Greenhouse gases – Part 2: Specification with guidance at the project level for the description, quantification, monitoring and reporting of greenhouse gas emission reductions and removal enhancements.
- ISO 14064-3:2006 is Greenhouse gases – Part 3: Specification with guidance for the validation and verification of greenhouse gas assertion.
- ISO 19011 which specifies one audit protocol for both 14000 and 9000 series standards together. This replaces ISO 14011 meta-evaluation—how to tell if your intended regulatory tools worked. 19011 are now the only recommended way to determine this.